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Shaping a sustainable future for a common plastic
The energy transition needs cables ? Il Post
Reading the mind of a worm
Hamilton wins in Qatar and goes to -8 from Verstappen. Alonso on the podium, Ferrari detached
Verstappen-Hamilton is a film never seen before: class, nerves and two ?godparents?. How many stories
Playing golf can make you live longer than non-players
Researchers develop ultra-thin ?laptop on the bone?
Scientists develop promising vaccine method against recurrent UTI
Understanding how pathogenic fungi build their carbohydrate armor
Felix, the 18-year-old who renounced the national team for Roma: ?Thank you Mou?

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                    [title] => Shaping a sustainable future for a common plastic
                    [link] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/shaping-a-sustainable-future-for-a-common-plastic/
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                            [creator] => Tony Grantly
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                    [pubdate] => Mon, 22 Nov 2021 10:26:51 +0000
                    [category] => Health And ScienceCommonfutureplasticShapingsustainable
                    [guid] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/?p=3758
                    [description] => Journal Reference: Chao Liang, Ulises R. Gracida-Alvarez, Ethan T. Gallant, Paul A. Gillis, Yuri A. Marques, Graham P. Abramo, Troy R. Hawkins, Jennifer B. Dunn. Material Flows of Polyurethane in the United States. Environmental Science & Technology, 2021; 55 (20): 14215 DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.1c03654 Polyurethane is one of the world?s most widely used plastic materials, but ... Read more
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Journal Reference:

  1. Chao Liang, Ulises R. Gracida-Alvarez, Ethan T. Gallant, Paul A. Gillis, Yuri A. Marques, Graham P. Abramo, Troy R. Hawkins, Jennifer B. Dunn. Material Flows of Polyurethane in the United States. Environmental Science & Technology, 2021; 55 (20): 14215 DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.1c03654

Polyurethane is one of the world?s most widely used plastic materials, but it?s often overlooked in our daily lives. Yet whether you?re at home, at work or in your vehicle, it is usually not far away, with common end uses ranging from mattresses and furniture cushioning to building insulation, car parts and even the soles of shoes.

But as with other plastics that go largely unrecycled, the widespread use of polyurethane is generating concerns about its environmental impact. To better understand the opportunities for recovering polyurethane for recycling and for replacing the chemicals used in its production with plant-based alternatives, researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, Northwestern University and The Dow Chemical Company joined together to conduct the first comprehensive assessment of ?Material Flows of Polyurethane in the United States.? The study was recently published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology.

?The goal was to understand how linear versus how circular is our use of polyurethanes in the United States,? explained co-author Jennifer Dunn, who is the associate director of Northwestern?s Center for Engineering Sustainability and Resilience and a member of the Program on Plastics, Ecosystems and Public Health at the Institute for Sustainability and Energy at Northwestern (ISEN). ?We also wanted to see if there are opportunities to enhance circularity and increase the bio-based content of polyurethanes.?

A linear economy is one in which raw materials are used to make products and then are typically thrown away at the end of their lives. In a circular economy, those same materials are recovered and reused. This limits the need to extract additional natural resources, like fossil fuels, while reducing the amount of waste sent to landfills.

Dunn, who is also an associate professor of chemical and biological engineering at Northwestern?s McCormick School of Engineering, said that while researchers expected to find a largely linear system for polyurethanes, ?seeing it through a materials flow perspective, from the starting materials to the end of life, it was just blatantly linear.?

According to co-author Troy Hawkins, who leads the Fuels and Products Group in Argonne?s Systems Assessment Center, the study highlighted a number of complexities that affect how and when polyurethanes can be recovered and recycled.

?Polyurethanes exist in various forms, from rigid to flexible, and each of these applications look and act differently. The use of polyurethanes has expanded rapidly in the last 50 years, and many uses are long-lived. So what?s going in now may not come out of use for another 10, 20 or 30 years. And there?s an issue with the concentration of polyurethane in various applications. For example, an adhesive or sealant is much harder to separate and recover compared to a mattress or carpet padding,? he said.

Additionally, the supply chains for polyurethanes have long been known to involve toxic materials called diisocyanates, and the study identified how and where they are used.

?Having this complete picture allows us for the first time to see opportunities for recovering and recycling polyurethane, and for replacing some of the inputs to polyurethane production that have environmental and safety concerns with safer, low carbon bio-based chemicals,? Hawkins said.

One of the unique aspects of the study was the involvement of Dow, which Dunn said allowed the researchers to incorporate detailed data and technical insight based on actual industry practices.

?Dow was integral to this study. The experience of the Dow co-authors grounded the analysis in real-world knowledge about how polyurethanes are made and used,? she said. ?They are also very interested in increasing the circularity of their systems and staying at the forefront of best practices for incorporating cleaner materials.?

Hawkins said there was a strong collaboration between Argonne and Northwestern as well, with each bringing to bear a broad range of capabilities and resources that have been built up over many years. ?It really offered synergies and an opportunity that we may not have each had independently,? he said. ?And it allowed us to incorporate new elements that we don?t typically track in life cycle assessments.?

The project took about a year to complete. It was sponsored by the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and administered by ISEN, as part of the collaborative three-year Responsible Innovation for Highly Recyclable Plastics initiative.

For next steps, Dunn said the team would use the study to help steer the development of new chemistries that could lead to more recyclable, bio-based polyurethanes.

?It?s going to be necessary for us and other researchers to keep contributing to this body of knowledge about these supply chains if we want to design a circular economy,? she said. ?We have to understand the state of things today if we?re going to create technologies that are cost-effective and produce recycled plastic materials that have as high or higher performance than what we are used to now.?

Hawkins added that the end goal isn?t to do away with plastics, but rather to make sure they are being used in a responsible and sustainable way.

?Plastics are incredibly useful and have a lot of benefits for society. If we were to get rid of plastics there would be all kinds of other problems we would have to deal with, which might cause more environmental harm than the plastics themselves,? he said. ?So we have to keep looking for ways to intervene in the current system and change things for the better.?

We want to thank the author of this write-up for this amazing web content

Shaping a sustainable future for a common plastic

) [summary] => Journal Reference: Chao Liang, Ulises R. Gracida-Alvarez, Ethan T. Gallant, Paul A. Gillis, Yuri A. Marques, Graham P. Abramo, Troy R. Hawkins, Jennifer B. Dunn. Material Flows of Polyurethane in the United States. Environmental Science & Technology, 2021; 55 (20): 14215 DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.1c03654 Polyurethane is one of the world?s most widely used plastic materials, but ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Chao Liang, Ulises R. Gracida-Alvarez, Ethan T. Gallant, Paul A. Gillis, Yuri A. Marques, Graham P. Abramo, Troy R. Hawkins, Jennifer B. Dunn. Material Flows of Polyurethane in the United States. Environmental Science & Technology, 2021; 55 (20): 14215 DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.1c03654

Polyurethane is one of the world?s most widely used plastic materials, but it?s often overlooked in our daily lives. Yet whether you?re at home, at work or in your vehicle, it is usually not far away, with common end uses ranging from mattresses and furniture cushioning to building insulation, car parts and even the soles of shoes.

But as with other plastics that go largely unrecycled, the widespread use of polyurethane is generating concerns about its environmental impact. To better understand the opportunities for recovering polyurethane for recycling and for replacing the chemicals used in its production with plant-based alternatives, researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, Northwestern University and The Dow Chemical Company joined together to conduct the first comprehensive assessment of ?Material Flows of Polyurethane in the United States.? The study was recently published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology.

?The goal was to understand how linear versus how circular is our use of polyurethanes in the United States,? explained co-author Jennifer Dunn, who is the associate director of Northwestern?s Center for Engineering Sustainability and Resilience and a member of the Program on Plastics, Ecosystems and Public Health at the Institute for Sustainability and Energy at Northwestern (ISEN). ?We also wanted to see if there are opportunities to enhance circularity and increase the bio-based content of polyurethanes.?

A linear economy is one in which raw materials are used to make products and then are typically thrown away at the end of their lives. In a circular economy, those same materials are recovered and reused. This limits the need to extract additional natural resources, like fossil fuels, while reducing the amount of waste sent to landfills.

Dunn, who is also an associate professor of chemical and biological engineering at Northwestern?s McCormick School of Engineering, said that while researchers expected to find a largely linear system for polyurethanes, ?seeing it through a materials flow perspective, from the starting materials to the end of life, it was just blatantly linear.?

According to co-author Troy Hawkins, who leads the Fuels and Products Group in Argonne?s Systems Assessment Center, the study highlighted a number of complexities that affect how and when polyurethanes can be recovered and recycled.

?Polyurethanes exist in various forms, from rigid to flexible, and each of these applications look and act differently. The use of polyurethanes has expanded rapidly in the last 50 years, and many uses are long-lived. So what?s going in now may not come out of use for another 10, 20 or 30 years. And there?s an issue with the concentration of polyurethane in various applications. For example, an adhesive or sealant is much harder to separate and recover compared to a mattress or carpet padding,? he said.

Additionally, the supply chains for polyurethanes have long been known to involve toxic materials called diisocyanates, and the study identified how and where they are used.

?Having this complete picture allows us for the first time to see opportunities for recovering and recycling polyurethane, and for replacing some of the inputs to polyurethane production that have environmental and safety concerns with safer, low carbon bio-based chemicals,? Hawkins said.

One of the unique aspects of the study was the involvement of Dow, which Dunn said allowed the researchers to incorporate detailed data and technical insight based on actual industry practices.

?Dow was integral to this study. The experience of the Dow co-authors grounded the analysis in real-world knowledge about how polyurethanes are made and used,? she said. ?They are also very interested in increasing the circularity of their systems and staying at the forefront of best practices for incorporating cleaner materials.?

Hawkins said there was a strong collaboration between Argonne and Northwestern as well, with each bringing to bear a broad range of capabilities and resources that have been built up over many years. ?It really offered synergies and an opportunity that we may not have each had independently,? he said. ?And it allowed us to incorporate new elements that we don?t typically track in life cycle assessments.?

The project took about a year to complete. It was sponsored by the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and administered by ISEN, as part of the collaborative three-year Responsible Innovation for Highly Recyclable Plastics initiative.

For next steps, Dunn said the team would use the study to help steer the development of new chemistries that could lead to more recyclable, bio-based polyurethanes.

?It?s going to be necessary for us and other researchers to keep contributing to this body of knowledge about these supply chains if we want to design a circular economy,? she said. ?We have to understand the state of things today if we?re going to create technologies that are cost-effective and produce recycled plastic materials that have as high or higher performance than what we are used to now.?

Hawkins added that the end goal isn?t to do away with plastics, but rather to make sure they are being used in a responsible and sustainable way.

?Plastics are incredibly useful and have a lot of benefits for society. If we were to get rid of plastics there would be all kinds of other problems we would have to deal with, which might cause more environmental harm than the plastics themselves,? he said. ?So we have to keep looking for ways to intervene in the current system and change things for the better.?

We want to thank the author of this write-up for this amazing web content

Shaping a sustainable future for a common plastic

[date_timestamp] => 1637576811 ) [1] => Array ( [title] => The energy transition needs cables ? Il Post [link] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/the-energy-transition-needs-cables-il-post/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Ann Moon ) [pubdate] => Mon, 22 Nov 2021 10:20:03 +0000 [category] => Sportcablesenergyposttransition [guid] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/?p=3755 [description] => The energy transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources is giving a strategic role to many industrial sectors whose importance is often underestimated: one of these is the sector of large cables – often submarine or underground, even hundreds of kilometers long – which make up the fundamental part of an electrical network, or ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

The energy transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources is giving a strategic role to many industrial sectors whose importance is often underestimated: one of these is the sector of large cables – often submarine or underground, even hundreds of kilometers long – which make up the fundamental part of an electrical network, or which connect the electrical networks of two regions or two states. Cables, which have always had a great importance in the management of networks around the world, with the energy transition have become fundamental: the electrification of the world is impossible without.

Electrification is one of the most important needs of the so-called energy transition. In order to be powered by clean energy, the vast majority of processes currently taking place by burning natural gas or petroleum derivatives will have to become electric, for the simple reason that all clean energy production systems (from wind to solar) produce electricity. .

This will involve many changes, and some will be visible in everyday life, because kitchen stoves will have to become electric, house heaters with heat pumps and even cars will have to be electrified. These are all known and clear changes, and governments, at various levels, are already working to implement them, for example by offering bonuses to replace traditional cars with electric cars.

Another set of changes relates to infrastructure.

Simplifying a lot, in order to electrify a large part of the energy system it is first of all necessary to find a way to generate enough energy with renewable sources to meet the needs; then it is necessary to transfer energy from the places of production to the places of consumption; finally you have to make sure that the network have, that is, that an infrastructure designed for a certain number of applications continues to supply energy correctly to homes, industries and offices even when these will increase a lot.

In short, you need not skip everything when the streets are full of rechargeable columns, and everyone will charge the electric car in the evening when they return from work, overloading the network.

– Read also: Was COP26 a failure?

The cables are used above all for the second and third purposes, that is to transport energy (obviously) and in part to maintain an efficient and balanced electrical network. The large cable sector is notable, for various reasons.

First of all, the companies that deal with it are relatively few, and the largest of all is Italian, it is called Prysmian and it is the market leader (the others are the French Nexans and the Danish NKT: between all three, 80 is shared by percent of the world market, excluding China).

These companies, which until a few years ago had a very important role but operated in a very inconspicuous way, have for some time taken on an even more central and public role, because obviously they are involved in all the major energy generation projects. renewables that have become more and more frequent in the world. They have also gotten richer, demonstrating their importance: over the past year and a half Prysmian, Nexans and NKT have doubled the value of their shares as it became clear that cables would be essential to the energy transition.

“Electricity will be the main energy carrier of the future, but once you have generated the energy you are only half done, because the energy has to be transported,” says Hakan Ozmen, executive vice president of Prysmian. “Without cables, there is no energy transition”.

The importance of large cables is made evident by the proliferation of huge projects for the generation of renewable energy, such as offshore wind farms, arrays of turbines positioned in the sea, even tens of kilometers from the coast, with the aim of generating energy by exploiting the wind in the open sea. The offshore wind farm projects currently under construction are numerous and for many countries they are one of the main tools of decarbonisation strategies.

For example, last year the government of Denmark approved a project for the construction of two artificial islands for the production of offshore renewables, which will have to power millions of homes and will be the largest infrastructure project in the country’s history.

– Read also: Denmark will build the first “energy island”

Similar offshore projects exist in Italy too, both for wind power and photovoltaics, and are under construction, for example, off the coast of Ravenna.

More generally, the construction of offshore renewable energy generation plants is a rapidly developing sector. Joe Biden’s US administration has also initiated a series of very ambitious projects for the construction of wind farms. And of course, cables are needed to connect artificial islands and wind farms located tens of kilometers from the coast to the mainland.

– Read also: The ambitious project to produce energy at sea, in Ravenna

The cables are laid underwater, laid in depths that in some cases are very deep (“Prysmian puts cables in depths of up to 3,000 meters,” says Ozmen), and these are obviously delicate and complex operations, in which special ships and in some cases even robots that facilitate cable storage.

The cables need special protection to be able to resist corrosion and pressure in the deepest waters, and to be protected by anchors and fishing nets in the lower ones. Generally, for distances greater than 100 kilometers, it is necessary to connect more portions of cable together, with further logistical difficulties.

The Prysmian plant in Arco Felice, near Naples (ANSA / PRYSMIAN)

The reason why cables are functional for large offshore energy projects is quite obvious. More complicated (but more interesting) is the other reason why cable companies are growing rapidly, and are engaging in increasingly ambitious projects, which in the future involve making submarine cables not hundreds, but thousands of them long. kilometers: many countries are working to connect their electricity grids together, even when they do not share borders and there is a sea (or an ocean, even) to separate them.

The reason is that having a global power grid as interconnected as possible is an important prerequisite for the energy transition.

Come he wrote recently theEconomist, “Stable and green electricity grids will only be feasible if they are linked together”. This is because the generation of electricity from renewable sources is more unpredictable than that made with fossil fuels, because it depends on wind and the presence of sunlight, among other things. There may be times when the energy produced is more than necessary, and times when it is not enough. Furthermore, it is not certain that the places where energy is generated are the same where it will be consumed.

With fossil fuels these problems are relatively easy to solve, because both gas and oil can be stored, stored and transported, and then used in the future: the moment of extraction of an energy source and that of energy consumption can be separated over time. But electricity is more difficult to store, and usually the electricity produced must be consumed immediately.

For some time we have been working on the construction of storage systems (large batteries) or the use of hydrogen as a vector, to try to conserve energy produced from renewable sources. However, the most successful idea is that of separating the moment of production and the moment of consumption not in time, but in space.

The idea, in practice, is to interconnect the global electricity grids as much as possible, to ensure that the places where the need for energy from renewable sources is most sustained are connected to the places of production even if hundreds or thousands away. of kilometers. To make these connections, once again, you need cables.

Many of these large electrical connections are already in place, or under construction. Some of the longest submarine power cables in the world are for example in the North Sea. A project connects the United Kingdom and Denmark: it is called Viking Link, it should be ready next year and is carried out together by Prysmian and NKT, who will have to lay 765 kilometers of cables on the seabed.

In general, more or less all the countries bordering the North Sea, from the Netherlands to Norway to Germany, are connected with large submarine electric cables, or will be in the future thanks to projects under construction or approval.

The need to make the electricity grid more interconnected is also very strong in Italy, as explained by Luca Marchisio, System Strategy Manager of Terna, the company that manages the electricity grid in Italy: “Italy has a very particular geographical configuration, it is an elongated strip where energy needs are mainly in the North, where most of industrial production is concentrated, while renewable resources are mainly in the South, for obvious climatic reasons ». This problem does not arise with fossil fuels, because thermoelectric plants are located mainly in the north. But when the bulk of renewable energy production will be in southern Italy, it will be necessary for the grid to be even more interconnected to allow the transport of energy from the places of generation to those of consumption.

In Italy, Terna is working on two major submarine cable projects: one is the Thyrrenian Link, a 950-kilometer cable that will connect Campania, Sicily and Sardinia together. The other is the Adriatic Link, which will connect Marche and Abruzzo by sea. In both cases, these are investments worth several billions. It is not yet known which companies Terna will collaborate with for the construction of the cables, because the tenders are currently underway.

In the world there are also exceptional and mammoth projects. Some are in the planning stage, such as the construction of a cable in the Mediterranean linking Israel to Greece, and another Israel to France. Others are just ideas for now, but very ambitious: a consortium wants to build a cable that connects solar plants in Morocco with the United Kingdom. Yet another plans of connect Australia, Indonesia and Singapore with a total of 4,200 kilometers of cables.

The interconnection of electricity networks (which obviously is not done only with submarine cables) has several advantages in a context of decarbonisation.

First of all, because it makes the energy supply more stable and secure. Anyone who designs electrical grids knows that there are times of day when demand increases, for example because in the summer mornings all the offices turn on the air conditioners. If the energy is produced by thermal power plants, it is easy to respond to this increase in demand: just burn more fuel and produce more energy. But with renewables this type of planning is not possible: the wind may not be there and the sun could cover itself just when it is most needed.

Obviously, when renewables are not available, systems will be adopted to buffer these problems, for example through the use of accumulators and above all by resorting to less polluting fuels, such as biomethane. But with a well interconnected grid, it will be possible to take renewable energy from places where it is produced in abundance at that moment, and keep the system balanced.

– Read also: Coal-fired power plants left in Italy

We want to say thanks to the author of this write-up for this remarkable material

The energy transition needs cables – Il Post

) [summary] => The energy transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources is giving a strategic role to many industrial sectors whose importance is often underestimated: one of these is the sector of large cables – often submarine or underground, even hundreds of kilometers long – which make up the fundamental part of an electrical network, or ... Read more [atom_content] =>

The energy transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources is giving a strategic role to many industrial sectors whose importance is often underestimated: one of these is the sector of large cables – often submarine or underground, even hundreds of kilometers long – which make up the fundamental part of an electrical network, or which connect the electrical networks of two regions or two states. Cables, which have always had a great importance in the management of networks around the world, with the energy transition have become fundamental: the electrification of the world is impossible without.

Electrification is one of the most important needs of the so-called energy transition. In order to be powered by clean energy, the vast majority of processes currently taking place by burning natural gas or petroleum derivatives will have to become electric, for the simple reason that all clean energy production systems (from wind to solar) produce electricity. .

This will involve many changes, and some will be visible in everyday life, because kitchen stoves will have to become electric, house heaters with heat pumps and even cars will have to be electrified. These are all known and clear changes, and governments, at various levels, are already working to implement them, for example by offering bonuses to replace traditional cars with electric cars.

Another set of changes relates to infrastructure.

Simplifying a lot, in order to electrify a large part of the energy system it is first of all necessary to find a way to generate enough energy with renewable sources to meet the needs; then it is necessary to transfer energy from the places of production to the places of consumption; finally you have to make sure that the network have, that is, that an infrastructure designed for a certain number of applications continues to supply energy correctly to homes, industries and offices even when these will increase a lot.

In short, you need not skip everything when the streets are full of rechargeable columns, and everyone will charge the electric car in the evening when they return from work, overloading the network.

– Read also: Was COP26 a failure?

The cables are used above all for the second and third purposes, that is to transport energy (obviously) and in part to maintain an efficient and balanced electrical network. The large cable sector is notable, for various reasons.

First of all, the companies that deal with it are relatively few, and the largest of all is Italian, it is called Prysmian and it is the market leader (the others are the French Nexans and the Danish NKT: between all three, 80 is shared by percent of the world market, excluding China).

These companies, which until a few years ago had a very important role but operated in a very inconspicuous way, have for some time taken on an even more central and public role, because obviously they are involved in all the major energy generation projects. renewables that have become more and more frequent in the world. They have also gotten richer, demonstrating their importance: over the past year and a half Prysmian, Nexans and NKT have doubled the value of their shares as it became clear that cables would be essential to the energy transition.

“Electricity will be the main energy carrier of the future, but once you have generated the energy you are only half done, because the energy has to be transported,” says Hakan Ozmen, executive vice president of Prysmian. “Without cables, there is no energy transition”.

The importance of large cables is made evident by the proliferation of huge projects for the generation of renewable energy, such as offshore wind farms, arrays of turbines positioned in the sea, even tens of kilometers from the coast, with the aim of generating energy by exploiting the wind in the open sea. The offshore wind farm projects currently under construction are numerous and for many countries they are one of the main tools of decarbonisation strategies.

For example, last year the government of Denmark approved a project for the construction of two artificial islands for the production of offshore renewables, which will have to power millions of homes and will be the largest infrastructure project in the country’s history.

– Read also: Denmark will build the first “energy island”

Similar offshore projects exist in Italy too, both for wind power and photovoltaics, and are under construction, for example, off the coast of Ravenna.

More generally, the construction of offshore renewable energy generation plants is a rapidly developing sector. Joe Biden’s US administration has also initiated a series of very ambitious projects for the construction of wind farms. And of course, cables are needed to connect artificial islands and wind farms located tens of kilometers from the coast to the mainland.

– Read also: The ambitious project to produce energy at sea, in Ravenna

The cables are laid underwater, laid in depths that in some cases are very deep (“Prysmian puts cables in depths of up to 3,000 meters,” says Ozmen), and these are obviously delicate and complex operations, in which special ships and in some cases even robots that facilitate cable storage.

The cables need special protection to be able to resist corrosion and pressure in the deepest waters, and to be protected by anchors and fishing nets in the lower ones. Generally, for distances greater than 100 kilometers, it is necessary to connect more portions of cable together, with further logistical difficulties.

The Prysmian plant in Arco Felice, near Naples (ANSA / PRYSMIAN)

The reason why cables are functional for large offshore energy projects is quite obvious. More complicated (but more interesting) is the other reason why cable companies are growing rapidly, and are engaging in increasingly ambitious projects, which in the future involve making submarine cables not hundreds, but thousands of them long. kilometers: many countries are working to connect their electricity grids together, even when they do not share borders and there is a sea (or an ocean, even) to separate them.

The reason is that having a global power grid as interconnected as possible is an important prerequisite for the energy transition.

Come he wrote recently theEconomist, “Stable and green electricity grids will only be feasible if they are linked together”. This is because the generation of electricity from renewable sources is more unpredictable than that made with fossil fuels, because it depends on wind and the presence of sunlight, among other things. There may be times when the energy produced is more than necessary, and times when it is not enough. Furthermore, it is not certain that the places where energy is generated are the same where it will be consumed.

With fossil fuels these problems are relatively easy to solve, because both gas and oil can be stored, stored and transported, and then used in the future: the moment of extraction of an energy source and that of energy consumption can be separated over time. But electricity is more difficult to store, and usually the electricity produced must be consumed immediately.

For some time we have been working on the construction of storage systems (large batteries) or the use of hydrogen as a vector, to try to conserve energy produced from renewable sources. However, the most successful idea is that of separating the moment of production and the moment of consumption not in time, but in space.

The idea, in practice, is to interconnect the global electricity grids as much as possible, to ensure that the places where the need for energy from renewable sources is most sustained are connected to the places of production even if hundreds or thousands away. of kilometers. To make these connections, once again, you need cables.

Many of these large electrical connections are already in place, or under construction. Some of the longest submarine power cables in the world are for example in the North Sea. A project connects the United Kingdom and Denmark: it is called Viking Link, it should be ready next year and is carried out together by Prysmian and NKT, who will have to lay 765 kilometers of cables on the seabed.

In general, more or less all the countries bordering the North Sea, from the Netherlands to Norway to Germany, are connected with large submarine electric cables, or will be in the future thanks to projects under construction or approval.

The need to make the electricity grid more interconnected is also very strong in Italy, as explained by Luca Marchisio, System Strategy Manager of Terna, the company that manages the electricity grid in Italy: “Italy has a very particular geographical configuration, it is an elongated strip where energy needs are mainly in the North, where most of industrial production is concentrated, while renewable resources are mainly in the South, for obvious climatic reasons ». This problem does not arise with fossil fuels, because thermoelectric plants are located mainly in the north. But when the bulk of renewable energy production will be in southern Italy, it will be necessary for the grid to be even more interconnected to allow the transport of energy from the places of generation to those of consumption.

In Italy, Terna is working on two major submarine cable projects: one is the Thyrrenian Link, a 950-kilometer cable that will connect Campania, Sicily and Sardinia together. The other is the Adriatic Link, which will connect Marche and Abruzzo by sea. In both cases, these are investments worth several billions. It is not yet known which companies Terna will collaborate with for the construction of the cables, because the tenders are currently underway.

In the world there are also exceptional and mammoth projects. Some are in the planning stage, such as the construction of a cable in the Mediterranean linking Israel to Greece, and another Israel to France. Others are just ideas for now, but very ambitious: a consortium wants to build a cable that connects solar plants in Morocco with the United Kingdom. Yet another plans of connect Australia, Indonesia and Singapore with a total of 4,200 kilometers of cables.

The interconnection of electricity networks (which obviously is not done only with submarine cables) has several advantages in a context of decarbonisation.

First of all, because it makes the energy supply more stable and secure. Anyone who designs electrical grids knows that there are times of day when demand increases, for example because in the summer mornings all the offices turn on the air conditioners. If the energy is produced by thermal power plants, it is easy to respond to this increase in demand: just burn more fuel and produce more energy. But with renewables this type of planning is not possible: the wind may not be there and the sun could cover itself just when it is most needed.

Obviously, when renewables are not available, systems will be adopted to buffer these problems, for example through the use of accumulators and above all by resorting to less polluting fuels, such as biomethane. But with a well interconnected grid, it will be possible to take renewable energy from places where it is produced in abundance at that moment, and keep the system balanced.

– Read also: Coal-fired power plants left in Italy

We want to say thanks to the author of this write-up for this remarkable material

The energy transition needs cables – Il Post

[date_timestamp] => 1637576403 ) [2] => Array ( [title] => Reading the mind of a worm [link] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/reading-the-mind-of-a-worm/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tony Grantly ) [pubdate] => Mon, 22 Nov 2021 09:09:17 +0000 [category] => Health And Sciencemindreadingworm [guid] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/?p=3753 [description] => Journal Reference: Javier J. How, Saket Navlakha, Sreekanth H. Chalasani. Neural network features distinguish chemosensory stimuli in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLOS Computational Biology, 2021; 17 (11): e1009591 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009591 ?We found some unexpected things when we started looking at the effect of these sensory stimuli on individual cells and connections within the worms? brains,? says Chalasani, ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Javier J. How, Saket Navlakha, Sreekanth H. Chalasani. Neural network features distinguish chemosensory stimuli in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLOS Computational Biology, 2021; 17 (11): e1009591 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009591

?We found some unexpected things when we started looking at the effect of these sensory stimuli on individual cells and connections within the worms? brains,? says Chalasani, member of the Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory and senior author of the new work, published in the journal PLOS Computational Biology on November 9, 2021.

Chalasani is interested in how, at a cellular level, the brain processes information from the outside world. Researchers can?t simultaneously track the activity of each of the 86 billion brain cells in a living human ? but they can do this in the microscopic worm Caenorhabditis elegans, which has only 302 neurons. Chalasani explains that in a simple animal like C. elegans, researchers can monitor individual neurons as the animal is carrying out actions. That level of resolution is not currently possible in humans or even mice.

Chalasani?s team set out to study how C. elegans neurons react to smelling each of five different chemicals: benzaldehyde, diacetyl, isoamyl alcohol, 2-nonanone, and sodium chloride. Previous studies have shown that C. elegans can differentiate these chemicals, which, to humans, smell roughly like almond, buttered popcorn, banana, cheese, and salt. And while researchers know the identities of the small handful of sensory neurons that directly sense these stimuli, Chalasani?s group was more interested in how the rest of the brain reacts.

The researchers engineered C. elegans so that each of their 302 neurons contained a fluorescent sensor that would light up when the neuron was active. Then, they watched under a microscope as they exposed 48 different worms to repeated bursts of the five chemicals. On average, 50 or 60 neurons activated in response to each chemical.

By looking at basic properties of the datasets ? such as how many cells were active at each time point ? Chalasani and his colleagues couldn?t immediately differentiate between the different chemicals. So, they turned to a mathematical approach called graph theory, which analyzes the collective interactions between pairs of cells: When one cell is activated, how does the activity of other cells change in response?

This approach revealed that whenever C. elegans was exposed to sodium chloride (salt), there was first a burst of activity in one set of neurons ? likely the sensory neurons ? but then about 30 second later, triplets of other neurons began to strongly coordinate their activities. These same distinct triplets weren?t seen after the other stimuli, letting the researchers accurately identify ? based only on the brain patterns ? when a worm had been exposed to salt.

?C. elegans seems to have attached a high value to sensing salt, using a completely different circuit configuration in the brain to respond,? says Chalasani. ?This might be because salt often represents bacteria, which is food for the worm.?

The researchers next used a machine-learning algorithm to pinpoint other, more subtle, differences in how the brain responded to each of the five chemicals. The algorithm was able to learn to differentiate the neural response to salt and benzaldehyde but often confused the other three chemicals.

?Whatever analysis we?ve done, it?s a start but we?re still only getting a partial answer as to how the brain discriminates these things,? says Chalasani.

Still, he points out that the way the team approached the study ? looking at the brain?s network-wide response to a stimulus, and applying graph theory, rather than just focusing on a small set of sensory neurons and whether they?re activated ? paves the way toward more complex and holistic studies of how brains react to stimuli.

The researchers? ultimate goal, of course, isn?t to read the minds of microscopic worms, but to gain a deeper understanding of how humans encode information in the brain and what happens when this goes awry in sensory processing disorders and related conditions like anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders and others.

The other authors of the new study were Saket Navlakha of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and Javier How of UC San Diego. The work was supported by grants from the Pew Charitable Trusts, the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation.

We would like to give thanks to the writer of this short article for this remarkable material

Reading the mind of a worm

) [summary] => Journal Reference: Javier J. How, Saket Navlakha, Sreekanth H. Chalasani. Neural network features distinguish chemosensory stimuli in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLOS Computational Biology, 2021; 17 (11): e1009591 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009591 ?We found some unexpected things when we started looking at the effect of these sensory stimuli on individual cells and connections within the worms? brains,? says Chalasani, ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Javier J. How, Saket Navlakha, Sreekanth H. Chalasani. Neural network features distinguish chemosensory stimuli in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLOS Computational Biology, 2021; 17 (11): e1009591 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009591

?We found some unexpected things when we started looking at the effect of these sensory stimuli on individual cells and connections within the worms? brains,? says Chalasani, member of the Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory and senior author of the new work, published in the journal PLOS Computational Biology on November 9, 2021.

Chalasani is interested in how, at a cellular level, the brain processes information from the outside world. Researchers can?t simultaneously track the activity of each of the 86 billion brain cells in a living human ? but they can do this in the microscopic worm Caenorhabditis elegans, which has only 302 neurons. Chalasani explains that in a simple animal like C. elegans, researchers can monitor individual neurons as the animal is carrying out actions. That level of resolution is not currently possible in humans or even mice.

Chalasani?s team set out to study how C. elegans neurons react to smelling each of five different chemicals: benzaldehyde, diacetyl, isoamyl alcohol, 2-nonanone, and sodium chloride. Previous studies have shown that C. elegans can differentiate these chemicals, which, to humans, smell roughly like almond, buttered popcorn, banana, cheese, and salt. And while researchers know the identities of the small handful of sensory neurons that directly sense these stimuli, Chalasani?s group was more interested in how the rest of the brain reacts.

The researchers engineered C. elegans so that each of their 302 neurons contained a fluorescent sensor that would light up when the neuron was active. Then, they watched under a microscope as they exposed 48 different worms to repeated bursts of the five chemicals. On average, 50 or 60 neurons activated in response to each chemical.

By looking at basic properties of the datasets ? such as how many cells were active at each time point ? Chalasani and his colleagues couldn?t immediately differentiate between the different chemicals. So, they turned to a mathematical approach called graph theory, which analyzes the collective interactions between pairs of cells: When one cell is activated, how does the activity of other cells change in response?

This approach revealed that whenever C. elegans was exposed to sodium chloride (salt), there was first a burst of activity in one set of neurons ? likely the sensory neurons ? but then about 30 second later, triplets of other neurons began to strongly coordinate their activities. These same distinct triplets weren?t seen after the other stimuli, letting the researchers accurately identify ? based only on the brain patterns ? when a worm had been exposed to salt.

?C. elegans seems to have attached a high value to sensing salt, using a completely different circuit configuration in the brain to respond,? says Chalasani. ?This might be because salt often represents bacteria, which is food for the worm.?

The researchers next used a machine-learning algorithm to pinpoint other, more subtle, differences in how the brain responded to each of the five chemicals. The algorithm was able to learn to differentiate the neural response to salt and benzaldehyde but often confused the other three chemicals.

?Whatever analysis we?ve done, it?s a start but we?re still only getting a partial answer as to how the brain discriminates these things,? says Chalasani.

Still, he points out that the way the team approached the study ? looking at the brain?s network-wide response to a stimulus, and applying graph theory, rather than just focusing on a small set of sensory neurons and whether they?re activated ? paves the way toward more complex and holistic studies of how brains react to stimuli.

The researchers? ultimate goal, of course, isn?t to read the minds of microscopic worms, but to gain a deeper understanding of how humans encode information in the brain and what happens when this goes awry in sensory processing disorders and related conditions like anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders and others.

The other authors of the new study were Saket Navlakha of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and Javier How of UC San Diego. The work was supported by grants from the Pew Charitable Trusts, the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation.

We would like to give thanks to the writer of this short article for this remarkable material

Reading the mind of a worm

[date_timestamp] => 1637572157 ) [3] => Array ( [title] => Hamilton wins in Qatar and goes to -8 from Verstappen. Alonso on the podium, Ferrari detached [link] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/hamilton-wins-in-qatar-and-goes-to-8-from-verstappen-alonso-on-the-podium-ferrari-detached/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => David Lonit ) [pubdate] => Mon, 22 Nov 2021 08:50:26 +0000 [category] => SportAlonsodetachedFerrariHamiltonpodiumQatarVerstappenwins [guid] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/?p=3750 [description] => The English driver from Mercedes wins in Losail ahead of the Dutch, penalized on the grid for not respecting the yellow flag in qualifying. With two races to go, the World Championship is very open Too much Mercedes, too much Lewis Hamilton. And with the penalty of 5 places inflicted on Max Verstappen in the ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

The English driver from Mercedes wins in Losail ahead of the Dutch, penalized on the grid for not respecting the yellow flag in qualifying. With two races to go, the World Championship is very open

Too much Mercedes, too much Lewis Hamilton. And with the penalty of 5 places inflicted on Max Verstappen in the morning for not respecting the yellow flag in qualifying, the Qatar GP was practically decided before the start. In the lights of Losail the star of Hamilton shone once again, who after Brazil struck another blow to Verstappen, responding to the two victories of the Dutch rival in Austin and Mexico City, thus bringing himself to just 8 points two races from the end. Max was very good at reacting to the penalty, making up three places at the start and then easily taking second place. But this GP also proved that Mercedes, after Mexico, has literally turned the corner. Hamilton goes like a missile, Verstappen does not keep pace on the race lap and with two victories in Jeddah and Abu Dhabi the title will go to Lewis, regardless of Max’s placement. he could be crowned champion if he were to take his lead beyond 26 points. But it is very difficult to imagine today.

Max great shot

?

Red Bull can certainly complain about the penalty remitted by their champion for not slowing down with the yellow flags on Saturday. But the times lined up by Hamilton today in the race suggest that there would have been no game, not even starting from the front row. At the start Hamilton was very good at keeping his head closing the door on Pierre Gasly, who was also jumped between turns 2 and 3 by Fernando Alonso’s Alpine. In turn Verstappen was very skilled in passing the Mercedes of Valtteri Bottas, the Ferrari of Carlos Sainz and the McLaren of Lando Norris, putting himself in the wake of Gasly and Alonso, who easily jumped on the finish straight in the 3rd and 4th place. round.

Lewis accelerates and goes

?

But once in second position, the assault on Mercedes was never possible. As soon as Hamilton pushed on the accelerator between lap 9 and lap 18, Red Bull broke away: 8 ?2 the margin on the eve of the first stop. And not even the two pit stops on lap 18 and lap 41 changed the hierarchy, Hamilton limited himself to marking the rival who reduced the damage by taking the additional point of the fastest lap in the race.

Bottas disaster, anonymous redheads

?

Disastrous Bottas who lost 5 positions at the start compromising his race, ruined by a puncture on lap 34 and retirement at 52nd. Fernando Alonso, on the other hand, is amazing, returning to the podium at the age of 40 after a great race that he managed to finish ahead of the second Red Bull, that of Sergio Perez. Esteban Ocon fifth with the second Alpine, while the race of the two Ferraris was rather anonymous, preceded by Lance Stroll’s Aston Martin: Sainz finished seventh, Leclerc eighth, the last two cars on the track at full laps, but very far behind. Small consolation having preceded McLaren, only ninth with Lando Norris and 12th with Daniel Ricciardo. A champion point for Sebastian Vettel 10th, while Alfa Romeo finished with Kimi Raikkonen and Antonio Giovinazzi in 14th and 15th place. Next race, the penultimate of the World Championship, in two weeks in Saudi Arabia on the brand new circuit of Jeddah.

Arrival and world rankings

?

This is the arrival order of the Qatar GP:

1. Hamilton (Mercedes)
2. Verstappen (Red Bull) a 25?7
3. Alonso (Alpine) a 59?4
4. Perez (Red Bull) at 1’02 ?3
5. Ocon (Alpine) a 1?20?5
6. Stroll (Aston Martin) a 1?21?2
7. Sainz (Ferrari) at 1’21 “9
8. Leclerc (Ferrari) a 1?23?1
9. Norris (McLaren) a 1 giro
10. Vettel (Aston Martin) a 1 giro
11. Gasly (AlphaTauri) a 1 giro
12. Ricciardo (McLaren) to 1 turn
13. Tsodina (AlphaTauri) a 1 gallon
14. Raikkonen (Alfa Romeo) at 1 turn
15. Giovinazzi (Alfa Romeo) in 1 lap
16. Schumacher (Haas) a 1 giro
17. Russell (Williams) a 2 giri
18. Mazepin (Haas) a 2 giri
19. Latifi (Williams) rit.
20. Bottas 8Mercedes) rit.

1. Verstappen (Ola) punti 351.5
2. Hamilton (GB) 343,5
3. Bottas (Fin) 203
4. Perez (Month) 190
5. Norris (GB) 153
6. Leclerc (Mon) 152
7. Sainz (Spa) 145.5
8. Ricciardo (Aus) 105
9. Gasly (Fra) 92
10. Alonso (Spa) 77
11. Ocon (Fra) 60
12. Vettel (Ger) 43
13. Stroll (Can) 34
14. Tsunoda (Gia) 20
15. Russell (GB) 16
16. Raikkonen (Fin) 10
17. Latifi (Can) 7
18. Giovinazzi (Ita) 1

1. Mercedes points 546.5
2. Red Bull 541,5
3. Ferrari 297,5
4. McLaren 258
5. Alpine 137
6. AlphaTauri 112
7. Aston Martin 77
8. Williams 23
9. Alfa Romeo 11
10. Haas 0

We wish to thank the author of this post for this outstanding web content

Hamilton wins in Qatar and goes to -8 from Verstappen. Alonso on the podium, Ferrari detached

) [summary] => The English driver from Mercedes wins in Losail ahead of the Dutch, penalized on the grid for not respecting the yellow flag in qualifying. With two races to go, the World Championship is very open Too much Mercedes, too much Lewis Hamilton. And with the penalty of 5 places inflicted on Max Verstappen in the ... Read more [atom_content] =>

The English driver from Mercedes wins in Losail ahead of the Dutch, penalized on the grid for not respecting the yellow flag in qualifying. With two races to go, the World Championship is very open

Too much Mercedes, too much Lewis Hamilton. And with the penalty of 5 places inflicted on Max Verstappen in the morning for not respecting the yellow flag in qualifying, the Qatar GP was practically decided before the start. In the lights of Losail the star of Hamilton shone once again, who after Brazil struck another blow to Verstappen, responding to the two victories of the Dutch rival in Austin and Mexico City, thus bringing himself to just 8 points two races from the end. Max was very good at reacting to the penalty, making up three places at the start and then easily taking second place. But this GP also proved that Mercedes, after Mexico, has literally turned the corner. Hamilton goes like a missile, Verstappen does not keep pace on the race lap and with two victories in Jeddah and Abu Dhabi the title will go to Lewis, regardless of Max’s placement. he could be crowned champion if he were to take his lead beyond 26 points. But it is very difficult to imagine today.

Max great shot

?

Red Bull can certainly complain about the penalty remitted by their champion for not slowing down with the yellow flags on Saturday. But the times lined up by Hamilton today in the race suggest that there would have been no game, not even starting from the front row. At the start Hamilton was very good at keeping his head closing the door on Pierre Gasly, who was also jumped between turns 2 and 3 by Fernando Alonso’s Alpine. In turn Verstappen was very skilled in passing the Mercedes of Valtteri Bottas, the Ferrari of Carlos Sainz and the McLaren of Lando Norris, putting himself in the wake of Gasly and Alonso, who easily jumped on the finish straight in the 3rd and 4th place. round.

Lewis accelerates and goes

?

But once in second position, the assault on Mercedes was never possible. As soon as Hamilton pushed on the accelerator between lap 9 and lap 18, Red Bull broke away: 8 ?2 the margin on the eve of the first stop. And not even the two pit stops on lap 18 and lap 41 changed the hierarchy, Hamilton limited himself to marking the rival who reduced the damage by taking the additional point of the fastest lap in the race.

Bottas disaster, anonymous redheads

?

Disastrous Bottas who lost 5 positions at the start compromising his race, ruined by a puncture on lap 34 and retirement at 52nd. Fernando Alonso, on the other hand, is amazing, returning to the podium at the age of 40 after a great race that he managed to finish ahead of the second Red Bull, that of Sergio Perez. Esteban Ocon fifth with the second Alpine, while the race of the two Ferraris was rather anonymous, preceded by Lance Stroll’s Aston Martin: Sainz finished seventh, Leclerc eighth, the last two cars on the track at full laps, but very far behind. Small consolation having preceded McLaren, only ninth with Lando Norris and 12th with Daniel Ricciardo. A champion point for Sebastian Vettel 10th, while Alfa Romeo finished with Kimi Raikkonen and Antonio Giovinazzi in 14th and 15th place. Next race, the penultimate of the World Championship, in two weeks in Saudi Arabia on the brand new circuit of Jeddah.

Arrival and world rankings

?

This is the arrival order of the Qatar GP:

1. Hamilton (Mercedes)
2. Verstappen (Red Bull) a 25?7
3. Alonso (Alpine) a 59?4
4. Perez (Red Bull) at 1’02 ?3
5. Ocon (Alpine) a 1?20?5
6. Stroll (Aston Martin) a 1?21?2
7. Sainz (Ferrari) at 1’21 “9
8. Leclerc (Ferrari) a 1?23?1
9. Norris (McLaren) a 1 giro
10. Vettel (Aston Martin) a 1 giro
11. Gasly (AlphaTauri) a 1 giro
12. Ricciardo (McLaren) to 1 turn
13. Tsodina (AlphaTauri) a 1 gallon
14. Raikkonen (Alfa Romeo) at 1 turn
15. Giovinazzi (Alfa Romeo) in 1 lap
16. Schumacher (Haas) a 1 giro
17. Russell (Williams) a 2 giri
18. Mazepin (Haas) a 2 giri
19. Latifi (Williams) rit.
20. Bottas 8Mercedes) rit.

1. Verstappen (Ola) punti 351.5
2. Hamilton (GB) 343,5
3. Bottas (Fin) 203
4. Perez (Month) 190
5. Norris (GB) 153
6. Leclerc (Mon) 152
7. Sainz (Spa) 145.5
8. Ricciardo (Aus) 105
9. Gasly (Fra) 92
10. Alonso (Spa) 77
11. Ocon (Fra) 60
12. Vettel (Ger) 43
13. Stroll (Can) 34
14. Tsunoda (Gia) 20
15. Russell (GB) 16
16. Raikkonen (Fin) 10
17. Latifi (Can) 7
18. Giovinazzi (Ita) 1

1. Mercedes points 546.5
2. Red Bull 541,5
3. Ferrari 297,5
4. McLaren 258
5. Alpine 137
6. AlphaTauri 112
7. Aston Martin 77
8. Williams 23
9. Alfa Romeo 11
10. Haas 0

We wish to thank the author of this post for this outstanding web content

Hamilton wins in Qatar and goes to -8 from Verstappen. Alonso on the podium, Ferrari detached

[date_timestamp] => 1637571026 ) [4] => Array ( [title] => Verstappen-Hamilton is a film never seen before: class, nerves and two ?godparents?. How many stories [link] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/verstappen-hamilton-is-a-film-never-seen-before-class-nerves-and-two-godparents-how-many-stories/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Eden Kently ) [pubdate] => Mon, 22 Nov 2021 08:47:53 +0000 [category] => SportclassfilmgodparentsNervesstoriesVerstappenHamilton [guid] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/?p=3747 [description] => In two Sundays the game has reopened and it is no longer clear where the scales are: the Mercedes seems to have been reborn, but the Dutchman of Red Bull can manage something on a tactical level. If we were talking about cinema, it would be a film with all the ingredients to become a ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

In two Sundays the game has reopened and it is no longer clear where the scales are: the Mercedes seems to have been reborn, but the Dutchman of Red Bull can manage something on a tactical level.

If we were talking about cinema, it would be a film with all the ingredients to become a blockbuster. Two protagonists of enormous talent, sudden twists, tripping and hugs, good and bad (depending on the point of view and the cheering …), poisonous words, ever higher tension towards a finale that promises to be spectacular and sensational . On the eve of the last two scenes still to be shot, in Saudi Arabia and Abu Dhabi, the plot of the F1 World Championship sees Max Verstappen leading the standings with an 8-point advantage over Lewis Hamilton. On the starting grid of the Brazilian GP, ??after Saturday’s sprint race at Interlagos, the margin was 21 points. In two Sundays the game has reopened and it is no longer clear where the balance lies: the Mercedes – at least that of the Englishman – seems to have been reborn, but the Dutchman of Red Bull can manage something, on a tactical level. And it is no small matter. Surely the writer is a dragon. In the last 15 years of F1 only three World Championships had proved – before this – so intense and sporty dramatic. That of 2010, which at the start of the last race of the season saw 4 drivers able to conquer the title, which then ended up in Sebastian Vettel with Red Bull. That of 2008, won by Hamilton with the McLaren with four corners from the end of the championship, for just one point on Felipe Massa’s Ferrari. And that of 12 months earlier, when Kimi Raikkonen reassembled Lewis himself at the last race, with the corollary of the summer spy story that saw the Woking team condemned and the Cavallino in the role of victim. However, three factors make 2021 unique and a step above what we have seen in the past.

The level of the two drivers in battle: Verstappen today is up to Hamilton, and both are part of the “absolute champions” category, whose names can be counted in the history of GPs on the fingers of both hands. The extraordinary technical effort produced by Red Bull and Mercedes: the aerodynamics and engine developments during the year, considering that a lot of energy is already directed towards the 2022 regulation change, have been incredible. Finally, the involvement in the fight – direct and insistent – of the two team principals. Net of a middle finger shaken by Ferrari director Cesare Fiorio in 1990 in the face of Ron Dennis, McLaren boss, after a Mansell-Senna clash at Estoril, we don’t remember episodes and heavy words like those that have been running for months between Chris Horner and Toto Wolff, number one of the teams in the fight. Psychological warfare, studied acting, sincere antipathy: the substance does not change, any form of pressure capable of agitating rivals is considered productive. Of the two missing GPs, one is in Jeddah – a new circuit like Losail – and the other on a well-known but recently modified track like Abu Dhabi. Technical choices, strategies, steadfast nerves, absence of errors: the World Cup will be decided on these points. Whatever happens, on the evening of December 12th we will all find ourselves in a withdrawal crisis.

We would love to give thanks to the writer of this write-up for this remarkable content

Verstappen-Hamilton is a film never seen before: class, nerves and two ?godparents?. How many stories

) [summary] => In two Sundays the game has reopened and it is no longer clear where the scales are: the Mercedes seems to have been reborn, but the Dutchman of Red Bull can manage something on a tactical level. If we were talking about cinema, it would be a film with all the ingredients to become a ... Read more [atom_content] =>

In two Sundays the game has reopened and it is no longer clear where the scales are: the Mercedes seems to have been reborn, but the Dutchman of Red Bull can manage something on a tactical level.

If we were talking about cinema, it would be a film with all the ingredients to become a blockbuster. Two protagonists of enormous talent, sudden twists, tripping and hugs, good and bad (depending on the point of view and the cheering …), poisonous words, ever higher tension towards a finale that promises to be spectacular and sensational . On the eve of the last two scenes still to be shot, in Saudi Arabia and Abu Dhabi, the plot of the F1 World Championship sees Max Verstappen leading the standings with an 8-point advantage over Lewis Hamilton. On the starting grid of the Brazilian GP, ??after Saturday’s sprint race at Interlagos, the margin was 21 points. In two Sundays the game has reopened and it is no longer clear where the balance lies: the Mercedes – at least that of the Englishman – seems to have been reborn, but the Dutchman of Red Bull can manage something, on a tactical level. And it is no small matter. Surely the writer is a dragon. In the last 15 years of F1 only three World Championships had proved – before this – so intense and sporty dramatic. That of 2010, which at the start of the last race of the season saw 4 drivers able to conquer the title, which then ended up in Sebastian Vettel with Red Bull. That of 2008, won by Hamilton with the McLaren with four corners from the end of the championship, for just one point on Felipe Massa’s Ferrari. And that of 12 months earlier, when Kimi Raikkonen reassembled Lewis himself at the last race, with the corollary of the summer spy story that saw the Woking team condemned and the Cavallino in the role of victim. However, three factors make 2021 unique and a step above what we have seen in the past.

The level of the two drivers in battle: Verstappen today is up to Hamilton, and both are part of the “absolute champions” category, whose names can be counted in the history of GPs on the fingers of both hands. The extraordinary technical effort produced by Red Bull and Mercedes: the aerodynamics and engine developments during the year, considering that a lot of energy is already directed towards the 2022 regulation change, have been incredible. Finally, the involvement in the fight – direct and insistent – of the two team principals. Net of a middle finger shaken by Ferrari director Cesare Fiorio in 1990 in the face of Ron Dennis, McLaren boss, after a Mansell-Senna clash at Estoril, we don’t remember episodes and heavy words like those that have been running for months between Chris Horner and Toto Wolff, number one of the teams in the fight. Psychological warfare, studied acting, sincere antipathy: the substance does not change, any form of pressure capable of agitating rivals is considered productive. Of the two missing GPs, one is in Jeddah – a new circuit like Losail – and the other on a well-known but recently modified track like Abu Dhabi. Technical choices, strategies, steadfast nerves, absence of errors: the World Cup will be decided on these points. Whatever happens, on the evening of December 12th we will all find ourselves in a withdrawal crisis.

We would love to give thanks to the writer of this write-up for this remarkable content

Verstappen-Hamilton is a film never seen before: class, nerves and two ?godparents?. How many stories

[date_timestamp] => 1637570873 ) [5] => Array ( [title] => Playing golf can make you live longer than non-players [link] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/playing-golf-can-make-you-live-longer-than-non-players/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tony Grantly ) [pubdate] => Mon, 22 Nov 2021 08:19:13 +0000 [category] => SportGolflivenonplayersPlaying [guid] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/?p=3744 [description] => Mónica Puig: “Playing sports is essential for mental health” 2:05 (CNN) — Like many young professionals, Tiffany Fitzgerald followed the advice to go to college and get a good job. But no one told him that he would also have to learn to play golf to get promoted in the company. “Once I entered the ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

(CNN) — Like many young professionals, Tiffany Fitzgerald followed the advice to go to college and get a good job. But no one told him that he would also have to learn to play golf to get promoted in the company.

“Once I entered the corporate world, I quickly discovered that golf was the only thing that others did that I did not do, and that is why I learned to play,” he says.

For Fitzgerald, it wasn’t exactly love at first hit. The steep learning curve was “embarrassing and intimidating.” But once he got better, he enjoyed himself more, so much so that he made golf his full-time career.

In 2013, Fitzgerald founded Black Girls Golf to create a safe space for women and girls to learn, play and connect at all skill levels. She says participation “skyrocketed” in the pandemic as more people sought safer activities to enjoy outdoors. The Atlanta-based organization now has more than 4,000 members in delegations across the United States, a sign of the growing inclusion in a traditionally dominated sport by wealthy white men.

“Black women make up less than one percent of the golf industry workforce, so a big part of our mission is to introduce girls to the professional opportunities that golf offers. And for professional women, there are many benefits, including health and wellness, “says Fitzgerald.

A longer and healthier life

A 2009 Swedish study suggests that golfers can living more time than non-golfers, up to five more years. Playing at least once a month can also reduce the risk of premature death of older adults.

According to Dr. Jacquelyn Turner, an adjunct professor at Morehouse School of Medicine, routinely playing golf has several physical health benefits. She is a golfer herself and says that playing golf can burn up to 2,000 calories by walking 18 holes, the equivalent of five miles, depending on the course.

Burning that many calories “is great aerobic exercise that can reduce many comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol,” says Dr. Turner.

He also points out other benefits of golf, such as increasing HDL (“good” cholesterol) levels and strengthening abdominal muscles, which are especially important in preventing falls in the future. Being outside in the sun also helps with vitamin D exposure.

And playing golf can make you a better candidate for surgery if you need it. As a colorectal surgeon, Dr. Turner has to assess the health of patients before scheduling operations. “If I know that a patient has been to the golf course and walks 18 holes of golf, guess what? They probably have a good indication of a healthy heart and lung system,” he says.

Beyond the physical benefits

As a busy, working mom, Fitzgerald sees golf as a healthy way to unwind and relax in the great outdoors.

“For me, it’s been a great stress reliever, helping my mental health a lot,” says Fitzgerald. “You forget what happens on a day-to-day basis because most golf courses are very beautiful. And nature can sometimes be really serene, and it helps you calm down and reduce your stress levels.”

Fitzgerald says that golf also teaches important skills that carry over into everyday life, such as discipline and self-acceptance. “There are a lot of parallels to golf in life, you know, hitting a bad shot and being able to let it go,” adds Fitzgerald.

“Golf forces you to forgive yourself, to be patient and, of course, to focus on the task at hand.”

Playing golf releases hormones that reduce stress and anxiety and can also improve memory, according to Dr. Turner. Research suggests that social nature of this sport can also contribute to the greater longevity of golfers.

As Fitzgerald can attest, golf can also boost your career. “Golf can put you in situations where you would never meet and side with people you would never have met,” he says, adding that networking on the field could lead to future career opportunities outside the field.

A sport for life

Golf is a low-impact, easy-on-the-joints sport that can be played at any age.

“It’s more about mental stamina, finesse and skill than strength, so you can play golf a lifetime,” says Fitzgerald.

Dr. Turner agrees. “Golf is a good activity for all segments of the population, from children to the elderly,” adding that everyone can benefit from improved balance and eye coordination. But before playing, he advises consulting your doctor, especially if you have previous medical problems, such as cardiovascular disease.

Once you are medically cleared, Fitzgerald recommends looking for other people to play. Not only will you be more responsible, but you will also find a community to have fun with, something important to a long and healthy life.

We would like to say thanks to the author of this post for this amazing content

Playing golf can make you live longer than non-players

) [summary] => Mónica Puig: “Playing sports is essential for mental health” 2:05 (CNN) — Like many young professionals, Tiffany Fitzgerald followed the advice to go to college and get a good job. But no one told him that he would also have to learn to play golf to get promoted in the company. “Once I entered the ... Read more [atom_content] =>

(CNN) — Like many young professionals, Tiffany Fitzgerald followed the advice to go to college and get a good job. But no one told him that he would also have to learn to play golf to get promoted in the company.

“Once I entered the corporate world, I quickly discovered that golf was the only thing that others did that I did not do, and that is why I learned to play,” he says.

For Fitzgerald, it wasn’t exactly love at first hit. The steep learning curve was “embarrassing and intimidating.” But once he got better, he enjoyed himself more, so much so that he made golf his full-time career.

In 2013, Fitzgerald founded Black Girls Golf to create a safe space for women and girls to learn, play and connect at all skill levels. She says participation “skyrocketed” in the pandemic as more people sought safer activities to enjoy outdoors. The Atlanta-based organization now has more than 4,000 members in delegations across the United States, a sign of the growing inclusion in a traditionally dominated sport by wealthy white men.

“Black women make up less than one percent of the golf industry workforce, so a big part of our mission is to introduce girls to the professional opportunities that golf offers. And for professional women, there are many benefits, including health and wellness, “says Fitzgerald.

A longer and healthier life

A 2009 Swedish study suggests that golfers can living more time than non-golfers, up to five more years. Playing at least once a month can also reduce the risk of premature death of older adults.

According to Dr. Jacquelyn Turner, an adjunct professor at Morehouse School of Medicine, routinely playing golf has several physical health benefits. She is a golfer herself and says that playing golf can burn up to 2,000 calories by walking 18 holes, the equivalent of five miles, depending on the course.

Burning that many calories “is great aerobic exercise that can reduce many comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol,” says Dr. Turner.

He also points out other benefits of golf, such as increasing HDL (“good” cholesterol) levels and strengthening abdominal muscles, which are especially important in preventing falls in the future. Being outside in the sun also helps with vitamin D exposure.

And playing golf can make you a better candidate for surgery if you need it. As a colorectal surgeon, Dr. Turner has to assess the health of patients before scheduling operations. “If I know that a patient has been to the golf course and walks 18 holes of golf, guess what? They probably have a good indication of a healthy heart and lung system,” he says.

Beyond the physical benefits

As a busy, working mom, Fitzgerald sees golf as a healthy way to unwind and relax in the great outdoors.

“For me, it’s been a great stress reliever, helping my mental health a lot,” says Fitzgerald. “You forget what happens on a day-to-day basis because most golf courses are very beautiful. And nature can sometimes be really serene, and it helps you calm down and reduce your stress levels.”

Fitzgerald says that golf also teaches important skills that carry over into everyday life, such as discipline and self-acceptance. “There are a lot of parallels to golf in life, you know, hitting a bad shot and being able to let it go,” adds Fitzgerald.

“Golf forces you to forgive yourself, to be patient and, of course, to focus on the task at hand.”

Playing golf releases hormones that reduce stress and anxiety and can also improve memory, according to Dr. Turner. Research suggests that social nature of this sport can also contribute to the greater longevity of golfers.

As Fitzgerald can attest, golf can also boost your career. “Golf can put you in situations where you would never meet and side with people you would never have met,” he says, adding that networking on the field could lead to future career opportunities outside the field.

A sport for life

Golf is a low-impact, easy-on-the-joints sport that can be played at any age.

“It’s more about mental stamina, finesse and skill than strength, so you can play golf a lifetime,” says Fitzgerald.

Dr. Turner agrees. “Golf is a good activity for all segments of the population, from children to the elderly,” adding that everyone can benefit from improved balance and eye coordination. But before playing, he advises consulting your doctor, especially if you have previous medical problems, such as cardiovascular disease.

Once you are medically cleared, Fitzgerald recommends looking for other people to play. Not only will you be more responsible, but you will also find a community to have fun with, something important to a long and healthy life.

We would like to say thanks to the author of this post for this amazing content

Playing golf can make you live longer than non-players

[date_timestamp] => 1637569153 ) [6] => Array ( [title] => Researchers develop ultra-thin ?laptop on the bone? [link] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/researchers-develop-ultra-thin-laptop-on-the-bone/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tony Grantly ) [pubdate] => Mon, 22 Nov 2021 07:52:13 +0000 [category] => Health And SciencebonedeveloplaptopResearchersultrathin [guid] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/?p=3742 [description] => Journal Reference: Le Cai, Alex Burton, David A. Gonzales, Kevin Albert Kasper, Amirhossein Azami, Roberto Peralta, Megan Johnson, Jakob A. Bakall, Efren Barron Villalobos, Ethan C. Ross, John A. Szivek, David S. Margolis, Philipp Gutruf. Osseosurface electronicsthin, wireless, battery-free and multimodal musculoskeletal biointerfaces. Nature Communications, 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-27003-2 “As a surgeon, I am ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Le Cai, Alex Burton, David A. Gonzales, Kevin Albert Kasper, Amirhossein Azami, Roberto Peralta, Megan Johnson, Jakob A. Bakall, Efren Barron Villalobos, Ethan C. Ross, John A. Szivek, David S. Margolis, Philipp Gutruf. Osseosurface electronicsthin, wireless, battery-free and multimodal musculoskeletal biointerfaces. Nature Communications, 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-27003-2

“As a surgeon, I am most excited about using measurements collected with osseosurface electronics to someday provide my patients with individualized orthopedic care — with the goal of accelerating rehabilitation and maximizing function after traumatic injuries,” said study co-senior author Dr. David Margolis, an assistant professor of orthopedic surgery in the UArizona College of Medicine — Tucson and orthopedic surgeon at Banner — University Medical Center Tucson.

Fragility fractures associated with conditions like osteoporosis account for more days spent in the hospital than heart attacks, breast cancer or prostate cancer. Although not yet tested or approved for use in humans, the wireless bone devices could one day be used not only to monitor health, but to improve it, said study co-senior author Philipp Gutruf, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering and Craig M. Berge faculty fellow in the College of Engineering.

“Being able to monitor the health of the musculoskeletal system is super important,” said Gutruf, who is also a member of the university’s BIO5 Institute. “With this interface, you basically have a computer on the bone. This technology platform allows us to create investigative tools for scientists to discover how the musculoskeletal system works and to use the information gathered to benefit recovery and therapy.”

Because muscles are so close to bones and move so frequently, it is important that the device be thin enough to avoid irritating surrounding tissue or becoming dislodged, Gutruf explained.

“The device’s thin structure, roughly as thick as a sheet of paper, means it can conform to the curvature of the bone, forming a tight interface,” said Alex Burton, a doctoral student in biomedical engineering and co-first author of the study. “They also do not need a battery. This is possible using a power casting and communication method called near-field communication, or NFC, which is also used in smartphones for contactless pay.”

Ceramic Adhesive Grows to Bone

The outer layers of bones shed and renew just like the outer layers of skin. So, if a traditional adhesive was used to attach something to the bone, it would fall off after just a few months. To address this challenge, study co-author and BIO5 Institute member John Szivek — a professor of orthopedic surgery and biomedical engineering — developed an adhesive that contains calcium particles with an atomic structure similar to bone cells, which is used as to secure osseosurface electronics to the bone.

“The bone basically thinks the device is part of it, and grows to the sensor itself,” Gutruf said. “This allows it to form a permanent bond to the bone and take measurements over long periods of time.”

For instance, a doctor could attach the device to a broken or fractured bone to monitor the healing process. This could be particularly helpful in patients with conditions such as osteoporosis, since they frequently suffer refractures. Knowing how quickly and how well the bone is healing could also inform clinical treatment decisions, such as when to remove temporary hardware like plates, rods or screws.

Some patients are prescribed drugs designed to speed up bone healing or improve bone density, but these prescriptions can have side effects. Close bone monitoring would allow physicians to make more informed decisions about drug dosage levels.

We want to give thanks to the author of this article for this remarkable content

Researchers develop ultra-thin ?laptop on the bone?

) [summary] => Journal Reference: Le Cai, Alex Burton, David A. Gonzales, Kevin Albert Kasper, Amirhossein Azami, Roberto Peralta, Megan Johnson, Jakob A. Bakall, Efren Barron Villalobos, Ethan C. Ross, John A. Szivek, David S. Margolis, Philipp Gutruf. Osseosurface electronicsthin, wireless, battery-free and multimodal musculoskeletal biointerfaces. Nature Communications, 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-27003-2 “As a surgeon, I am ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Le Cai, Alex Burton, David A. Gonzales, Kevin Albert Kasper, Amirhossein Azami, Roberto Peralta, Megan Johnson, Jakob A. Bakall, Efren Barron Villalobos, Ethan C. Ross, John A. Szivek, David S. Margolis, Philipp Gutruf. Osseosurface electronicsthin, wireless, battery-free and multimodal musculoskeletal biointerfaces. Nature Communications, 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-27003-2

“As a surgeon, I am most excited about using measurements collected with osseosurface electronics to someday provide my patients with individualized orthopedic care — with the goal of accelerating rehabilitation and maximizing function after traumatic injuries,” said study co-senior author Dr. David Margolis, an assistant professor of orthopedic surgery in the UArizona College of Medicine — Tucson and orthopedic surgeon at Banner — University Medical Center Tucson.

Fragility fractures associated with conditions like osteoporosis account for more days spent in the hospital than heart attacks, breast cancer or prostate cancer. Although not yet tested or approved for use in humans, the wireless bone devices could one day be used not only to monitor health, but to improve it, said study co-senior author Philipp Gutruf, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering and Craig M. Berge faculty fellow in the College of Engineering.

“Being able to monitor the health of the musculoskeletal system is super important,” said Gutruf, who is also a member of the university’s BIO5 Institute. “With this interface, you basically have a computer on the bone. This technology platform allows us to create investigative tools for scientists to discover how the musculoskeletal system works and to use the information gathered to benefit recovery and therapy.”

Because muscles are so close to bones and move so frequently, it is important that the device be thin enough to avoid irritating surrounding tissue or becoming dislodged, Gutruf explained.

“The device’s thin structure, roughly as thick as a sheet of paper, means it can conform to the curvature of the bone, forming a tight interface,” said Alex Burton, a doctoral student in biomedical engineering and co-first author of the study. “They also do not need a battery. This is possible using a power casting and communication method called near-field communication, or NFC, which is also used in smartphones for contactless pay.”

Ceramic Adhesive Grows to Bone

The outer layers of bones shed and renew just like the outer layers of skin. So, if a traditional adhesive was used to attach something to the bone, it would fall off after just a few months. To address this challenge, study co-author and BIO5 Institute member John Szivek — a professor of orthopedic surgery and biomedical engineering — developed an adhesive that contains calcium particles with an atomic structure similar to bone cells, which is used as to secure osseosurface electronics to the bone.

“The bone basically thinks the device is part of it, and grows to the sensor itself,” Gutruf said. “This allows it to form a permanent bond to the bone and take measurements over long periods of time.”

For instance, a doctor could attach the device to a broken or fractured bone to monitor the healing process. This could be particularly helpful in patients with conditions such as osteoporosis, since they frequently suffer refractures. Knowing how quickly and how well the bone is healing could also inform clinical treatment decisions, such as when to remove temporary hardware like plates, rods or screws.

Some patients are prescribed drugs designed to speed up bone healing or improve bone density, but these prescriptions can have side effects. Close bone monitoring would allow physicians to make more informed decisions about drug dosage levels.

We want to give thanks to the author of this article for this remarkable content

Researchers develop ultra-thin ?laptop on the bone?

[date_timestamp] => 1637567533 ) [7] => Array ( [title] => Scientists develop promising vaccine method against recurrent UTI [link] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/scientists-develop-promising-vaccine-method-against-recurrent-uti/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tony Grantly ) [pubdate] => Mon, 22 Nov 2021 06:35:51 +0000 [category] => Health And SciencedevelopmethodpromisingrecurrentScientistsUTIvaccine [guid] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/?p=3740 [description] => Journal Reference: Michael A. Luzuriaga, Fabian C. Herbert, Olivia R. Brohlin, Jashkaran Gadhvi, Thomas Howlett, Arezoo Shahrivarkevishahi, Yalini H. Wijesundara, Sundharamani Venkitapathi, Kavya Veera, Ryanne Ehrman, Candace E. Benjamin, Sarah Popal, Michael D. Burton, Molly A. Ingersoll, Nicole J. De Nisco, Jeremiah J. Gassensmith. Metal?Organic Framework Encapsulated Whole-Cell Vaccines Enhance Humoral Immunity against Bacterial Infection. ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Michael A. Luzuriaga, Fabian C. Herbert, Olivia R. Brohlin, Jashkaran Gadhvi, Thomas Howlett, Arezoo Shahrivarkevishahi, Yalini H. Wijesundara, Sundharamani Venkitapathi, Kavya Veera, Ryanne Ehrman, Candace E. Benjamin, Sarah Popal, Michael D. Burton, Molly A. Ingersoll, Nicole J. De Nisco, Jeremiah J. Gassensmith. Metal?Organic Framework Encapsulated Whole-Cell Vaccines Enhance Humoral Immunity against Bacterial Infection. ACS Nano, 2021; DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.1c03092

Dr. Nicole De Nisco, assistant professor of biological sciences, and Dr. Jeremiah Gassensmith, associate professor of chemistry and biochemistry, recently demonstrated the use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to encapsulate and inactivate whole bacterial cells to create a ?depot? that allows the vaccines to last longer in the body.

The resulting study, published online Sept. 21 in the American Chemical Society?s journal ACS Nano, showed that in mice this method produced substantially enhanced antibody production and significantly higher survival rates compared to standard whole-cell vaccine preparation methods.

?Vaccination as a therapeutic route for recurrent UTIs is being explored because antibiotics aren?t working anymore,? De Nisco said. ?Patients are losing their bladders to save their lives because the bacteria cannot be killed by antibiotics or because of an extreme allergy to antibiotics, which is more common in the older population than people may realize.?

The American Urological Association estimates that 150 million UTIs occur yearly worldwide, accounting for $6 billion in medical expenditures. If not successfully treated, a UTI can lead to sepsis, which can be fatal.

Recurrent UTI, De Nisco said, is primarily regarded as a women?s health issue, and although it?s common ? especially in postmenopausal women ? it?s something many women don?t talk about a lot.

?Every subsequent infection becomes more difficult to treat,? De Nisco said. ?Even if you clear the bacteria from the bladder, populations persist elsewhere and usually become resistant to the antibiotic used. When patients accumulate antibiotic resistances, they?re eventually going to run out of options.?

De Nisco?s continuing exploration of how UTIs progress and recur in older women is funded by a recent five-year, $1.3 million grant (R01DK131267) from the National Institutes of Health.

De Nisco?s collaboration with Gassensmith began in late 2018 after she gave a presentation on the microbiology of UTI to a campus safety protocol committee.

?Afterward, we talked about my research group?s idea of creating better whole-cell vaccines by preserving antigens in this slow-release depot,? Gassensmith said. ?At the time, we had no real models to test it with, and I thought UTI presented a very good opportunity.?

Vaccines work by introducing a small amount of killed or weakened disease-causing germs, or some of their components, to the body. These antigens prompt the immune system to produce antibodies against a particular disease. Building vaccines against pathogenic bacteria is inherently difficult because bacteria are significantly larger and more complex than viruses. Selecting which biological components to use to create antigens has been a major challenge.

Consequently, using the entire cell is preferable to choosing just a piece of a bacterium, Gassensmith said.

?We throw the whole kitchen sink at them because that?s what your body normally sees when it becomes infected,? he said.

The whole-cell approach has its own issues, however.

?Vaccines using whole-cell dead bacteria haven?t succeeded because the cells typically don?t last long enough in the body to produce long-term, durable immune responses,? Gassensmith said. ?That?s the reason for our MOF antigen depot: It allows an intact, dead pathogen to exist in tissue longer, as if it were an infection, in order to trigger a full-scale immune system response.?

The metal-organic framework Gassensmith?s team developed encapsulates and immobilizes an individual bacterium cell in a crystalline polymeric matrix that not only kills the bacterium but also preserves and stabilizes the dead cell against high temperature, moisture and organic solvents.

In their experiments, the researchers used a strain of Escherichia coli. There are no vaccines against any pathogenic strain of this bacterium. Uropathogenic E. coli causes about 80% of all community-acquired UTIs.

?When we challenged these mice with a lethal injection of bacteria, after they were vaccinated, almost all of our animals survived, which is a much better performance than with traditional vaccine approaches,? Gassensmith said. ?This result was repeated multiple times, and we?re quite impressed with how reliable it is.?

Although the method has not yet been tested in humans, De Nisco said it has the potential to help millions of patients.

?This study on UTI was a proof of concept that whole-cell vaccines are more effective in this extreme, lethal-sepsis model,? De Nisco said. ?Showing that this works against recurrent UTI would be a significant breakthrough.?

Beyond recurrent UTI or urosepsis, researchers believe the antigen depot method could be applied broadly to bacterial infections, including endocarditis and tuberculosis.

?We?re working on translating this approach to TB, which is a very different organism, but like uropathogenic E. coli, when it enters the tissue, it stays, and it recurs,? Gassensmith said. ?It requires a new way of thinking about how vaccines should work.

?Vaccine technology is about two centuries old, and it has evolved amazingly little. We hope our platform can open up using existing, well-studied pathogens to create more directed and engineered immune responses.?

The project, involving two departments in the School of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, was initially facilitated by the UT Dallas Office of Research and Innovation through a grant to the two scientists from the Seed Program for Interdisciplinary Research. The initiative encourages cross-disciplinary collaboration among University researchers. The research also was funded in part by grants from the National Science Foundation (DMR-1654405 and DMR-2003534) and The Welch Foundation.

Other UT Dallas authors of the ACS Nano article are lead authors Michael Luzuriaga PhD?20, now a research fellow in pediatrics at Harvard Medical School, and chemistry doctoral student Fabian Castro Herbert BS?18; Dr. Michael Burton, assistant professor of neuroscience; Candace Benjamin PhD?20, now a conjugation scientist at Vaxcyte in California; Sarah Popal BS?21, a neuroscience graduate applying to dental schools; molecular and cell biology doctoral students Jashkaran Gadhvi, Sundharamani Venkitapathi and Kavya Veera; and chemistry doctoral students Olivia Brohlin, Ryanne Ehrman, Thomas Howlett BS?18, Arezoo Shahrivarkevishahi and Yalini Wijesundara.

Immunologist Dr. Molly Ingersoll of the Institut Pasteur in Paris also contributed.

We wish to give thanks to the author of this write-up for this remarkable content

Scientists develop promising vaccine method against recurrent UTI

) [summary] => Journal Reference: Michael A. Luzuriaga, Fabian C. Herbert, Olivia R. Brohlin, Jashkaran Gadhvi, Thomas Howlett, Arezoo Shahrivarkevishahi, Yalini H. Wijesundara, Sundharamani Venkitapathi, Kavya Veera, Ryanne Ehrman, Candace E. Benjamin, Sarah Popal, Michael D. Burton, Molly A. Ingersoll, Nicole J. De Nisco, Jeremiah J. Gassensmith. Metal?Organic Framework Encapsulated Whole-Cell Vaccines Enhance Humoral Immunity against Bacterial Infection. ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Michael A. Luzuriaga, Fabian C. Herbert, Olivia R. Brohlin, Jashkaran Gadhvi, Thomas Howlett, Arezoo Shahrivarkevishahi, Yalini H. Wijesundara, Sundharamani Venkitapathi, Kavya Veera, Ryanne Ehrman, Candace E. Benjamin, Sarah Popal, Michael D. Burton, Molly A. Ingersoll, Nicole J. De Nisco, Jeremiah J. Gassensmith. Metal?Organic Framework Encapsulated Whole-Cell Vaccines Enhance Humoral Immunity against Bacterial Infection. ACS Nano, 2021; DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.1c03092

Dr. Nicole De Nisco, assistant professor of biological sciences, and Dr. Jeremiah Gassensmith, associate professor of chemistry and biochemistry, recently demonstrated the use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to encapsulate and inactivate whole bacterial cells to create a ?depot? that allows the vaccines to last longer in the body.

The resulting study, published online Sept. 21 in the American Chemical Society?s journal ACS Nano, showed that in mice this method produced substantially enhanced antibody production and significantly higher survival rates compared to standard whole-cell vaccine preparation methods.

?Vaccination as a therapeutic route for recurrent UTIs is being explored because antibiotics aren?t working anymore,? De Nisco said. ?Patients are losing their bladders to save their lives because the bacteria cannot be killed by antibiotics or because of an extreme allergy to antibiotics, which is more common in the older population than people may realize.?

The American Urological Association estimates that 150 million UTIs occur yearly worldwide, accounting for $6 billion in medical expenditures. If not successfully treated, a UTI can lead to sepsis, which can be fatal.

Recurrent UTI, De Nisco said, is primarily regarded as a women?s health issue, and although it?s common ? especially in postmenopausal women ? it?s something many women don?t talk about a lot.

?Every subsequent infection becomes more difficult to treat,? De Nisco said. ?Even if you clear the bacteria from the bladder, populations persist elsewhere and usually become resistant to the antibiotic used. When patients accumulate antibiotic resistances, they?re eventually going to run out of options.?

De Nisco?s continuing exploration of how UTIs progress and recur in older women is funded by a recent five-year, $1.3 million grant (R01DK131267) from the National Institutes of Health.

De Nisco?s collaboration with Gassensmith began in late 2018 after she gave a presentation on the microbiology of UTI to a campus safety protocol committee.

?Afterward, we talked about my research group?s idea of creating better whole-cell vaccines by preserving antigens in this slow-release depot,? Gassensmith said. ?At the time, we had no real models to test it with, and I thought UTI presented a very good opportunity.?

Vaccines work by introducing a small amount of killed or weakened disease-causing germs, or some of their components, to the body. These antigens prompt the immune system to produce antibodies against a particular disease. Building vaccines against pathogenic bacteria is inherently difficult because bacteria are significantly larger and more complex than viruses. Selecting which biological components to use to create antigens has been a major challenge.

Consequently, using the entire cell is preferable to choosing just a piece of a bacterium, Gassensmith said.

?We throw the whole kitchen sink at them because that?s what your body normally sees when it becomes infected,? he said.

The whole-cell approach has its own issues, however.

?Vaccines using whole-cell dead bacteria haven?t succeeded because the cells typically don?t last long enough in the body to produce long-term, durable immune responses,? Gassensmith said. ?That?s the reason for our MOF antigen depot: It allows an intact, dead pathogen to exist in tissue longer, as if it were an infection, in order to trigger a full-scale immune system response.?

The metal-organic framework Gassensmith?s team developed encapsulates and immobilizes an individual bacterium cell in a crystalline polymeric matrix that not only kills the bacterium but also preserves and stabilizes the dead cell against high temperature, moisture and organic solvents.

In their experiments, the researchers used a strain of Escherichia coli. There are no vaccines against any pathogenic strain of this bacterium. Uropathogenic E. coli causes about 80% of all community-acquired UTIs.

?When we challenged these mice with a lethal injection of bacteria, after they were vaccinated, almost all of our animals survived, which is a much better performance than with traditional vaccine approaches,? Gassensmith said. ?This result was repeated multiple times, and we?re quite impressed with how reliable it is.?

Although the method has not yet been tested in humans, De Nisco said it has the potential to help millions of patients.

?This study on UTI was a proof of concept that whole-cell vaccines are more effective in this extreme, lethal-sepsis model,? De Nisco said. ?Showing that this works against recurrent UTI would be a significant breakthrough.?

Beyond recurrent UTI or urosepsis, researchers believe the antigen depot method could be applied broadly to bacterial infections, including endocarditis and tuberculosis.

?We?re working on translating this approach to TB, which is a very different organism, but like uropathogenic E. coli, when it enters the tissue, it stays, and it recurs,? Gassensmith said. ?It requires a new way of thinking about how vaccines should work.

?Vaccine technology is about two centuries old, and it has evolved amazingly little. We hope our platform can open up using existing, well-studied pathogens to create more directed and engineered immune responses.?

The project, involving two departments in the School of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, was initially facilitated by the UT Dallas Office of Research and Innovation through a grant to the two scientists from the Seed Program for Interdisciplinary Research. The initiative encourages cross-disciplinary collaboration among University researchers. The research also was funded in part by grants from the National Science Foundation (DMR-1654405 and DMR-2003534) and The Welch Foundation.

Other UT Dallas authors of the ACS Nano article are lead authors Michael Luzuriaga PhD?20, now a research fellow in pediatrics at Harvard Medical School, and chemistry doctoral student Fabian Castro Herbert BS?18; Dr. Michael Burton, assistant professor of neuroscience; Candace Benjamin PhD?20, now a conjugation scientist at Vaxcyte in California; Sarah Popal BS?21, a neuroscience graduate applying to dental schools; molecular and cell biology doctoral students Jashkaran Gadhvi, Sundharamani Venkitapathi and Kavya Veera; and chemistry doctoral students Olivia Brohlin, Ryanne Ehrman, Thomas Howlett BS?18, Arezoo Shahrivarkevishahi and Yalini Wijesundara.

Immunologist Dr. Molly Ingersoll of the Institut Pasteur in Paris also contributed.

We wish to give thanks to the author of this write-up for this remarkable content

Scientists develop promising vaccine method against recurrent UTI

[date_timestamp] => 1637562951 ) [8] => Array ( [title] => Understanding how pathogenic fungi build their carbohydrate armor [link] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/understanding-how-pathogenic-fungi-build-their-carbohydrate-armor/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tony Grantly ) [pubdate] => Mon, 22 Nov 2021 05:18:56 +0000 [category] => Health And Sciencearmorbuildcarbohydratefungipathogenicunderstanding [guid] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/?p=3738 [description] => Journal Reference: Arnab Chakraborty, Liyanage D. Fernando, Wenxia Fang, Malitha C. Dickwella Widanage, Pingzhen Wei, Cheng Jin, Thierry Fontaine, Jean-Paul Latgé, Tuo Wang. A molecular vision of fungal cell wall organization by functional genomics and solid-state NMR. Nature Communications, 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-26749-z Life-threatening fungal infections impact the health of millions of humans across ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Arnab Chakraborty, Liyanage D. Fernando, Wenxia Fang, Malitha C. Dickwella Widanage, Pingzhen Wei, Cheng Jin, Thierry Fontaine, Jean-Paul Latgé, Tuo Wang. A molecular vision of fungal cell wall organization by functional genomics and solid-state NMR. Nature Communications, 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-26749-z

Life-threatening fungal infections impact the health of millions of humans across the globe each year. With the limited efficacy of commercially available drugs, the need for novel antifungal compounds is on the rise.

The Wang research team examined the structural dynamics of fungal polysaccharides and their responses to cell wall stress. Specifically, the team examined the cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus, a fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals.

The research team coupled its expertise in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with a functional genomics approach using multiple mutants of Aspergillus fumigatus, each of which selectively eliminates a single type of structural carbohydrate at one time.

?This research strategy allowed us to evaluate the structural role of each major carbohydrate by tracking the changes in cell wall structure after the removal of a component,? Wang said. ?The spectroscopy method provided atomic resolution on the structure of polysaccharides and associated proteins using intact fungal cell walls free from any treatment that might perturb the native status of these biomolecules.?

The data led to the development of a revised model of fungal cell wall organization and the assembly of five categories of polysaccharides, including chitin, ?-glucan, mannan, ?-glucan, and galactosaminogalactan. The findings confirmed an overlooked but prominent role of ?-glucans in the cell wall structuration. The mutants produce stiffer and more water-proof cell walls for better protection, which might be a general mechanism used by these microbes to handle stresses.

The research involved an interdisciplinary collaboration with scientists from Institut Pasteur in France, University of Crete in Greece, as well as the Guangxi Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Sciences in China. Scientists involved in this study also utilized instrumentation at the National Science Foundation?s National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, Fla.

?Now that we revealed the structural principles used by fungi to respond to cell wall defects, it is time to explore how fungi reconstruct this carbohydrate armor to survive through antifungal treatments and severe environments,? said Wang.

Their findings and methodology may open a new research avenue of looking at these complex biomaterials in many different pathogenic fungal species and assessing the mode of actions of novel antifungal molecules, which will assist in the combat against invasive fungal infections.

We want to give thanks to the author of this post for this remarkable content

Understanding how pathogenic fungi build their carbohydrate armor

) [summary] => Journal Reference: Arnab Chakraborty, Liyanage D. Fernando, Wenxia Fang, Malitha C. Dickwella Widanage, Pingzhen Wei, Cheng Jin, Thierry Fontaine, Jean-Paul Latgé, Tuo Wang. A molecular vision of fungal cell wall organization by functional genomics and solid-state NMR. Nature Communications, 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-26749-z Life-threatening fungal infections impact the health of millions of humans across ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Arnab Chakraborty, Liyanage D. Fernando, Wenxia Fang, Malitha C. Dickwella Widanage, Pingzhen Wei, Cheng Jin, Thierry Fontaine, Jean-Paul Latgé, Tuo Wang. A molecular vision of fungal cell wall organization by functional genomics and solid-state NMR. Nature Communications, 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-26749-z

Life-threatening fungal infections impact the health of millions of humans across the globe each year. With the limited efficacy of commercially available drugs, the need for novel antifungal compounds is on the rise.

The Wang research team examined the structural dynamics of fungal polysaccharides and their responses to cell wall stress. Specifically, the team examined the cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus, a fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals.

The research team coupled its expertise in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with a functional genomics approach using multiple mutants of Aspergillus fumigatus, each of which selectively eliminates a single type of structural carbohydrate at one time.

?This research strategy allowed us to evaluate the structural role of each major carbohydrate by tracking the changes in cell wall structure after the removal of a component,? Wang said. ?The spectroscopy method provided atomic resolution on the structure of polysaccharides and associated proteins using intact fungal cell walls free from any treatment that might perturb the native status of these biomolecules.?

The data led to the development of a revised model of fungal cell wall organization and the assembly of five categories of polysaccharides, including chitin, ?-glucan, mannan, ?-glucan, and galactosaminogalactan. The findings confirmed an overlooked but prominent role of ?-glucans in the cell wall structuration. The mutants produce stiffer and more water-proof cell walls for better protection, which might be a general mechanism used by these microbes to handle stresses.

The research involved an interdisciplinary collaboration with scientists from Institut Pasteur in France, University of Crete in Greece, as well as the Guangxi Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Sciences in China. Scientists involved in this study also utilized instrumentation at the National Science Foundation?s National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, Fla.

?Now that we revealed the structural principles used by fungi to respond to cell wall defects, it is time to explore how fungi reconstruct this carbohydrate armor to survive through antifungal treatments and severe environments,? said Wang.

Their findings and methodology may open a new research avenue of looking at these complex biomaterials in many different pathogenic fungal species and assessing the mode of actions of novel antifungal molecules, which will assist in the combat against invasive fungal infections.

We want to give thanks to the author of this post for this remarkable content

Understanding how pathogenic fungi build their carbohydrate armor

[date_timestamp] => 1637558336 ) [9] => Array ( [title] => Felix, the 18-year-old who renounced the national team for Roma: ?Thank you Mou? [link] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/felix-the-18-year-old-who-renounced-the-national-team-for-roma-thank-you-mou/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Debby Kent ) [pubdate] => Mon, 22 Nov 2021 04:57:38 +0000 [category] => Sport18yearoldFelixMouNationalrenouncedRomateam [guid] => https://dentistnewsnetwork.com/?p=3735 [description] => The first 2003 to score in Serie A, with the brace against Genoa he scored two goals in just three league appearances Morgan De Sanctis brought him and wanted him to Rome and decided, in agreement with Tiago Pinto, to occupy one of the two non-EU slots for him last February. A decision that perhaps ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

The first 2003 to score in Serie A, with the brace against Genoa he scored two goals in just three league appearances

Morgan De Sanctis brought him and wanted him to Rome and decided, in agreement with Tiago Pinto, to occupy one of the two non-EU slots for him last February. A decision that perhaps surprised some, but Felix Afena-Gyan, according to De Sanctis and according to the Giallorossi observers (above all Simone Lo Schiavo), was one of those guys for whom it was worth giving a try. Eighteen years old in January, he is the first 2003 to score in Serie A and with the brace against Genoa he scored two goals in just three league appearances, since he made his debut last 27 October in Cagliari. Not only that: he is the youngest player to score a multiple mark in the 5 best leagues in Europe this season and he is the youngest Roma player to score a brace in the three-point era.

THE RELATIONSHIP WITH MOU

?

When Mourinho decided that yes, the little boy, as he calls him, had to stay in the first team, he took him out of Alberto De Rossi’s Primavera and, with his staff, he started working on it day after day. And he, who lives in the boarding school a stone’s throw from the Giallorossi sports center, has put himself under. He speaks English, but understands Italian a little, he gave up the call with Ghana to take advantage of the break and work with Mourinho and the facts proved him right: ?Thanks mom, I love you, she is still in Ghana. I dedicate the goal to her and I dedicate it to my teammates ?, he said in the 90th minute, after having kissed the Roma emblem for a long time. The other words for Mourinho were: ?Thank you, he’s a great coach and a great person?. Logical, given how much Mou has bet on him.

HIS OWN STORY

?

A bet that other European clubs, especially English, wanted to make on Felix before Roma fell, so much so that even the BBC had dealt with his history. In love with the yellow and red colors since, at the age of fifteen, he lived the historic comeback against Barcelona with transport and emotion, he grew up in Ghana with great difficulty, with his mother trying to get him to study and at the same time make him cultivate a passion for football. As a child he was noticed by Oliver Arthur, the agent who then handled the transfer to Trigoria and was referred to the EurAfrica Academy. In the Spring, this season, six goals in five games, then, training after training, Mourinho wanted to keep him with him and began to train him tactically, reminding him to always take care of his body. Excellent technique, he is robust but fast, also thanks to the athletics he practiced as a child. An extremely religious boy, he wants to bring his mother and the rest of the family to Italy soon and in the meantime he wants to continue to convince Mourinho. After Cagliari, on social media, he said to the coach: ?Forever grateful, sir. I will make you proud ?. Not even a month has passed: he did it great.

We want to give thanks to the author of this write-up for this outstanding material

Felix, the 18-year-old who renounced the national team for Roma: “Thank you Mou”

) [summary] => The first 2003 to score in Serie A, with the brace against Genoa he scored two goals in just three league appearances Morgan De Sanctis brought him and wanted him to Rome and decided, in agreement with Tiago Pinto, to occupy one of the two non-EU slots for him last February. A decision that perhaps ... Read more [atom_content] =>

The first 2003 to score in Serie A, with the brace against Genoa he scored two goals in just three league appearances

Morgan De Sanctis brought him and wanted him to Rome and decided, in agreement with Tiago Pinto, to occupy one of the two non-EU slots for him last February. A decision that perhaps surprised some, but Felix Afena-Gyan, according to De Sanctis and according to the Giallorossi observers (above all Simone Lo Schiavo), was one of those guys for whom it was worth giving a try. Eighteen years old in January, he is the first 2003 to score in Serie A and with the brace against Genoa he scored two goals in just three league appearances, since he made his debut last 27 October in Cagliari. Not only that: he is the youngest player to score a multiple mark in the 5 best leagues in Europe this season and he is the youngest Roma player to score a brace in the three-point era.

THE RELATIONSHIP WITH MOU

?

When Mourinho decided that yes, the little boy, as he calls him, had to stay in the first team, he took him out of Alberto De Rossi’s Primavera and, with his staff, he started working on it day after day. And he, who lives in the boarding school a stone’s throw from the Giallorossi sports center, has put himself under. He speaks English, but understands Italian a little, he gave up the call with Ghana to take advantage of the break and work with Mourinho and the facts proved him right: ?Thanks mom, I love you, she is still in Ghana. I dedicate the goal to her and I dedicate it to my teammates ?, he said in the 90th minute, after having kissed the Roma emblem for a long time. The other words for Mourinho were: ?Thank you, he’s a great coach and a great person?. Logical, given how much Mou has bet on him.

HIS OWN STORY

?

A bet that other European clubs, especially English, wanted to make on Felix before Roma fell, so much so that even the BBC had dealt with his history. In love with the yellow and red colors since, at the age of fifteen, he lived the historic comeback against Barcelona with transport and emotion, he grew up in Ghana with great difficulty, with his mother trying to get him to study and at the same time make him cultivate a passion for football. As a child he was noticed by Oliver Arthur, the agent who then handled the transfer to Trigoria and was referred to the EurAfrica Academy. In the Spring, this season, six goals in five games, then, training after training, Mourinho wanted to keep him with him and began to train him tactically, reminding him to always take care of his body. Excellent technique, he is robust but fast, also thanks to the athletics he practiced as a child. An extremely religious boy, he wants to bring his mother and the rest of the family to Italy soon and in the meantime he wants to continue to convince Mourinho. After Cagliari, on social media, he said to the coach: ?Forever grateful, sir. I will make you proud ?. Not even a month has passed: he did it great.

We want to give thanks to the author of this write-up for this outstanding material

Felix, the 18-year-old who renounced the national team for Roma: “Thank you Mou”

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